How to pronounce –ed?

-ed pronunciation



How to pronounce –ed?

The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed.

For example: work, worked, worked

Many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed.

For example: I like painted furniture.

The question is, how do we pronounce the -ed? The answer is, in 3 ways:

  • /ɪd/
  • /t/
  • /d/
If the base verb ends in  

example base verb*


example with -ed

pronounce the -ed as  
                /t/ want wanted /ɪd/
                /d/ end ended









/f/ laugh laughed
/s/ fax faxed
/ʃ/ wash washed
/ʧ/ watch watched
/k/ like liked
voiced all other sounds  






allow allowed
beg begged

*Note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, fax ends in the letter x but the sound /s/; like ends in the letter e but the sound /k/.


The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /ɪd/:

  • dogged
  • ragged
  • wicked
  • crooked
  • naked

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